Lakes Gummare, Afambo and Abbe

In 2001, Peile Thompson trekked the length of the Awash River north of Awash Saba, the first person to do so unsupported since Wilfred Thesiger in 1934. Shortly afterwards, he sent me the following information about the remote Lakes Gummare, Afambo and Abbe, which has been included in the last few editions if the Bradt Guide. I am now posting it on this update website as it will be removed from the next printed edition of the book in order to make way for less obscure information. Note, however, as detailed in the upcoming 7th edition, that the bridge at Ebobe has been rebuilt, so it is now possible to visit Gummare as a 4×4 day trip out of Asaita, stopping at a village called Afambo, where you will need to pay US$30 at the police station to pick up a pathfinder and armed escorts.

South of Asaita, the Awash River terminates in a chain of about six shallow saline and freshwater lakes, of which the largest (and last) is Lake Abbe on the border with Djibouti. The deep blue lakes, fringed by lush salt-tolerant vegetation and surrounded by high mountains, support dense populations of hippos and crocodiles. The lakes form one of the most important waterbird sites in Ethiopia, and attract large numbers of Palaearctic migrants during the European winter. On the Djibouti side, Lake Abbe is a popular weekend destination. The Ethiopian side of the lakes, however, is totally undeveloped for tourism, and likely to remain so for some time. At the time of writing, the lakes are inaccessible in a vehicle, following the collapse of the bridge across a river at Ebobe, 10km south of Asaita. Until such time as this road is repaired, the only feasible way of reaching the lakes is by hiking or setting up a camel expedition.

Over May and June of 2001, Peile Thompson explored this area on foot, using routes that hadn’t been walked by a faranji since Wilfred Thesiger in the 1930s. Peile travelled with six camels (to carry supplies and water), and many of the routes he followed would be suitable only to experienced and well-prepared adventurers carrying sufficient water to last several days. However, he has kindly passed on details of a relatively straightforward round hike between Asaita and lakes Gummare and Afambo, which could be undertaken over two (or better three) days without inordinate preparation.

To do this hike, you’d need to carry two or three days’ food, depending on how long you take over it. Drinking water is available at reasonably regular intervals, but it’s always advisable to carry some water (and refill whenever possible) in case the pumps aren’t working. It would be inviting problems to travel through this part of Afar country without a local Afar guide, and written permission from the regional authority. A permit can easily be arranged through the tourist office in Asaita. They can also arrange a local guide. Travelling in this area without a guide is foolhardy, not only because he will interact with local Afar people on your behalf, but also because there is a genuine risk of losing your way, with potentially fatal results.

The most accessible lakes are Gummare and Afambo, which are linked by a short stretch of river about 20km south of Asaita by road. To get to the lakes, you must first follow the main road south of town for about 10km to the river at Ebobe. If you want to cut down the walking time, a local bus service does run at least once daily between Asaita and Ebobe (timings are erratic), and there is plenty of transport along this road on Tuesdays (market day). You can normally cross the river on foot, but the banks are too steep for a vehicle, which is why the bus and all other transport terminates here. Shortly past the crossing is a police post, where you will be turned back if you don’t have written authority. South of this, the track runs through fertile land dotted with rural Afar settlements and small papyrus-fringed lakes – the birdlife is incredible.

Another 10km or so along the track, you reach a deep 15m-wide river. Here, the local Afar people have made a raft out of fallen reeds and will pull you and your kit across to the other side for birr 5 each. You could swim it, but there are a lot of crocodiles around! About 500m beyond this crossing, you reach the river linking Lake Afambo to Lake Gummare. There used to be a bridge over this 150m crossing, but it collapsed some time ago. This crossing has to be done with a raft as there are many crocs and hippos around in the lake. The border traders are all queuing up to get on the rafts, with camels laden with salt and goods. The animals swim across, but the goods are placed on the papyrus raft and ferried to the other side. The people who operate the rafts will charge you ridiculous sums to get across, knowing you have no option … but don’t be tempted to swim it as we did, we nearly got scoffed, and the locals went crazy! This is real smuggler’s country, so be a little careful, as things get heated and everyone is armed. For the few that make it here, the view of Lake Gummare is magnificent with the rich birdlife, the Afar hustle and bustle, and the high surrounding escarpment that drops down to the opposite lakeshore.

Having crossed the river, you pick up the track again as it winds up the high escarpment towards the Djibouti border. After about 3km, this climb of several hundred metres in elevation leads towards a point marked on several maps as Afambo. We expected there to be some form of settlement here … wrong, unless you count a derelict bunch of buildings and an observation post, remnants of the old Derg border post! From the abandoned camp, the views over the lakes and back west towards Asaita are awesome. Note, however, that the surrounding area is mined, so you should always stick to the path, and that no safe route other than the track you have climbed connects the camp to the lakes. The hike up from the crossing to Afambo takes about 90 minutes, but it’s really worth the effort for the views.

There is no accommodation around the lakes, nor are there formal campsites. Travellers can camp rough anywhere they like, ideally slightly away from the villages to avoid masses of people (and ticks!). The area is very hot, even at night, so it’s not necessary to carry a lot of camping gear – but you will need some protection from the prolific mosquitoes. Expect to be investigated by young Afar warriors asking questions (and sometimes a fee). This is when you need a local guide and piece of paper with the Afar Tourism Board stamp on it. I should stress that federal stamps and pieces of paper count for nothing in Afar; you must have something with an Afar government stamp or people will turn you back.

From the crossing point described above, Peile notes that it’s possible to continue south along a little-used track that follows the eastern shore of Lake Afambo to Lake Abbe, where you can cross into Djibouti. The hike from the crossing point to Lake Abbe takes four days. Peile stresses that no drinking water is available until you reach Lake Abbe, where there are some freshwater springs. Lake Afambo’s water was potable in Thesiger’s day, but it’s now very saline due to the various irrigation schemes along the Awash River. In this hot and exposed terrain, you would need to carry at least ten litres of water each per day – that’s a total of 40 litres of drinking water each for the full hike, which would have to be carried on camelback.

Visiting Danakil

This is the highlight of my trip to Ethiopia if not the highlight of my life. It was not very easy to organise the trip as none of the eight of us knew each other before we met in Ethiopia. The original idea initiated in this forum and we had an amazing group of 8 people in the end, including Victoria, 69 yr old independent traveller from Austria who instantly became our subject of adoration who gave us hope we’ll be carrying on travelling independently even after the age of 69. 6 of us met through LP Thorn Tree and the remaining 2 were recruited in Ethiopia. Two ladies were interested in the three day trip Dallol and six of us went even further to Erta Ale on a five day expedition. The most economical way was to start and end our tour in Mekele. Costs have been negotiated, re-negotiated, boring bits cut out from the itinerary, itinerary amended several times etc. You’ll be experiencing Afar way of life, caravans, salt slab production etc even if you pay for the Dallol excursion only so no need to fear you’ll miss out on something if Addis is not the starting/ending point of your Danakil Depression trip.

Safety – Governments of many western countries advice against all travel to Danakil Depression. Hostage taking did take place in the past and maybe Afar indeed are not the friendliest of people, but we didn’t feel threatened at all. 

You cannot visit Dallol in less than tree days from Mekele – the first day is just driving from Mekele; stop for lunch, arrangement of permits and allocation of an armed guard at Berhaile and PM drive to Hamed Ale. Sleep at Hamed Ale and the second day comprises of spending half day at Dallol, bake in the heat of the afternoon, then sleep again at Hamed Ale and the third day is the same as the day one, but other way round.

Dallol and Erta Ale can be visited on a five day expedition: the first two days as per above, the third day is the drive through Danakil Desert from Hamed Ale to the Erta Ale base camp, then 3 hours evening climb/hike, 2 hours at the volcano, 4 hours sleep, 1.5 hours at the volcano before the sunrise and the descent follows soon after the sunrise on day 4. Day 4 is all day driving from Erta Ale base camp to Hamed Ale and Day 5 is the same as the day one, but other way round.

Ask your tour operator to provide prices for 2 people, 3 people, 4 people, 5 people and 6+ (sometimes 5+). Our price options were:

2 Travelers -905Euro, 3 PAX- 785Euro, 4 PAX- 670Euro, 5 & above – 535 Euro

Price includes

• 4wd vehicles comprehensively insured

• Gasoline

• Fees to drivers, security guards, road leader and for the cook

• 3 meals of the day with bottled mineral water

• Permit to Danakil

• Camping gears

• All government taxes

. Fees to camels and local guides

Ask the tour operator to spell out if something is NOT included just to make sure there are no any hidden costs. Tips for drivers, cook, little servant in Hamed Ale and the exaggerated protection in Dallol (we had 4 soldiers with us!) were not included in our price and that worked out around Birr 300 extra per person.

Very important – ask your tour operator to guarantee the following:
• There will be plenty of water in case you’re stuck in the desert, especially on days 3 and 4!
• First Aid kit!
• The drivers must have each other in sight at all times, especially on days 3 and 4!
• There must be one torch per person for the hike to Erta Ale. The hike is 3 hours long and not particularly hard, but the volcanic rock is sharp and a few of us had some (minor) cuts.
• The Afar guide will have to be in control at the approach to the inner rim – we got too excited and wondered off dangerously close to the edge not knowing how solid the rocks were where we were standing on – this should have not happened! 
• Ask for air con 4×4 (our air con didn’t work)
• Ask if they have satellite phone (they probably don’t)

Day 3 and 4 are the most challenging as this involves long drive through the most inhospitable of places – the drivers can get lost trying to find their way through the sand and bushes. The most hazardous is Day 4 when the local Afar guide is dropped off at his village in the morning and the drivers now left with no resident guide start loosing each other whilst trying to get to Hamed Ale as quickly as possible. Things like car breakdown or simply being stuck in the sand in the midday sun at the temperature of 40+C can be fatal if there’s no water or shade to escape to. If this happens, then let them do whatever they need to do to get the car back in the driving condition. You find/improvise the shade, hold on to your water and hope for the best. If worse comes to worst then the local Afars will find you – it’s incredible in what places they were appearing!

Things to take with you: (small) binoculars, sun block, hat, sunglasses, scarf/sarong, baby wipes, maybe ear plugs to minimise the wind effect and always make sure there’s plenty of water in your 4×4. You won’t need any extra clothing or tents for sleeping in Hamed Ale, it’s hot even at night and just a mattress will do, but the volcano is at 600m altitude and you’ll need a blanket, sleeping bag or a couple long sleeve T shirts.

Sulphurous fumes should not be a great concern at the rim of the volcano, but they are strong enough to cause mild irritation to your respiratory system – use scarf/sarong to cover your nose/mouth if your tour operator can’t provide one of those masks. 

Our agency was Visit Ethiopia Tour and Travel and it was pleasure cooperating with Mikias. He’s very understanding, trustworthy, friendly, speaks good English and he can be reached on:+251 911 681 100. They, and other agencies, will ask for deposit to be paid as soon as possible, but we paid ours only a few days before the expedition because none of the people in the group knew each other before traveling to Ethiopia. It’s easy to transfer the money between banks in Ethiopia: you must know the recipient’s names, address and the exact branch of the bank they wish to collect the money from. Eg, you’ll be paying money in Axum’s Dashen Bank branch to Mr John Smith of Menelik II Avenue, Addis Ababa etc who wishes to collect the money from Dashen Bank Bole Road branch in Addis Ababa. 

Goran Jovetic, London, UK

Afar trip report

The World from Afar – the edge of Ethiopia
February 2009
My second visit to the Danakil desert and the hottest place on Earth. Ethiopia continues to enthrall and Afar is one of those regions which is on the edge, in many different senses. It is remote, inhospitable and has a reputation, probably justified, for being insecure. We went as a group of ten in 4 landcruisers using a very experienced local expedition organizer. To do this trip they have to be! We travelled to Mekele, north from Addis, initially along some of the worst roads in Ethiopia – mainly because they are being rebuilt. For some reason in this country road building seems totally illogical. They endeavour to build the whole road at once, hence the chaos and disruption seems endless, as did this stretch of road! We spent the first night in Kombolcha and the second in Mekele.
North central Ethiopia is comprised of a series of tablelands, dissected deeply by rivers which leave remnants of features not dissimilar to the canyon lands of the American west. The area is quite arid and the rocks vary from old lava flows to a variety of sandstones. The road improves after Dessie but topography creates a need for tortuous ascents and descents. The roads, as a result of these ups and downs, challenge vehicles and drivers, the evidence of which is seen by the frequent accidents where cars, Izuzu trucks (locally known as Al Qaeda, because they kill so many!) and intercity buses which have gone over the edge. A sobering reminder of the need to have good drivers, vehicles, and take care. The altitude along the roads north remains high – over 2000 metres and in places rising to 3000. It is only when you leave Mekele, a pleasant town which is well maintained, that the long descent begins.
We had a vehicle break down in Mekele which annoyingly delayed our departure. But despite knowing that we would get to the Danakil late we persisted in our journey. The trip down takes the vehicles down incised river valleys, over ridges and truly provides the drivers, passengers and vehicles with a rough ride. We picked up our police and army escort, needed for the political tensions and potential kidnappings which exist in this area, and our permits, in Berhale. By then it was dark and not knowing what was to the side or ahead was somewhat intimidating. We drove on and even if the night had descended the heat and aridity increased. We were entering the hottest place on Earth where temperatures in the summer can reach record levels of 58C! As we travelled down we passed the caravans of camels who have plied this route for centuries to extract salt from the former sea bed of what was an extension of the red sea. They seemed ethereal in the moonlight and we appeared to be disturbing their lentitudinous, but unending, steady cycle from Mekele to Dallol and back.
We camped, there are no hotels, in Ahmedila. A small Afar settlement which is dependent on the salt trade. The people here control the extraction. They dig it up, they shape it into blocks and then it is transported out to markets throughout Ethiopia. In the evening the men can be seen sharpening their axes and cutting implements. The village is friendly and they have a deep well to help sustain their existence in such a desolate and harsh environment. The salt itself is a sustainable resource. When the water table rises as a result of rivers which flow into the area in the wet season the old workings are dissolved and new salts are precipitated over time. We watched the production lines as they cut, prised out, shaped and loaded the salt. They do this all year in all temperatures. I do not know how, but they do! This is an age old practice and it looks set to continue for the forseeable future.
However, we didn’t just come to the Danakil to look at salt extraction. The Danakil is amazing for some of the most unique landforms and physical features seen on Earth. Dallol, at 120 metres below sea level, has an old volcano which simmers beneath the surface. It last erupted in 1926 but now the gases and heat mix with water and other minerals found as part of the salt deposits to create a bizarre landscape of salt pillars, small yellow, green and orange lakes and fumaroles. There are bubbling pools of sulphuric acid, hot gas emissions, offensive smells and terraces of precipitated minerals. It is highly active and since my last visit there it was more extensive and even more exciting. Despite the heat the sights are incredible. There are former remnants of an Italian extractive industry which was based here in the 1930’s. They came in from what is now Eritrea. Old buildings built of salt blocks and fossilized cars, encased in salt! The colours, steam, smoke, bubbling pools fringed with rocks recently formed and looking like icing make this an incredible sight to see. Not just a desert!
Driving across to see Dallol we crossed the area where the salt was being extracted but the tracks made by vehicles created a strange road made of salt polygons – I have never seen anything like it. These patterns stretched to the mirages on the horizon, where camels floated above the illusive watery surface.
The day after visiting the solfataras, the yellow peril, we ventured south into was people might perceive to be real desert – sand dunes. In actual fact only about 5% of deserts are covered with dune systems. Going south there is no road, only a direction and anastomosing patterns of tracks left by other vehicles who have made the journey. One of our vehicles, having lost its four wheel drive capacity, got stuck on a few occasions but in the end, as a result of the driving skills of our intrepid guide, Teddy, we got to the base village where we set off to climb Erte Ale. Erte Ale is a very gently sloping volcano which pours out, from a permanent lava lake, vast quantities of fluid lava. We drove up a very cindery and rocky track towards the parking place. This track was very sadly, a few weeks later, to be the final place that our cook, Assefa, ever saw. He had been on four trips with me and he was blown up on this road, along with several others, by a deliberately placed landmine. This is testament to the fact that Afar is truly on the edge and the Afaris are discontent with Government influence and the fact that a new road is going to dissect their land and expose them to more control. They like their isolation and autonomy. The impact of this on tourism, however, means that the Afar lose a potential source of income even if only a few tourists pass this way.
We started trekking late in the afternoon and we arranged camels to take up our food and gear. We were going to sleep on the edge. An edge with a view! It took two and a half hours to reach the summit along a fairly well worn path. The moon was up and the stars were out by the time we neared the summit. As we got closer the beautiful sky was forgotten about, for the moment, and our attention focused on the orange glow which varied in intensity as the lava occasionally broke through the surface crust. Erte Ale is one of three, I believe, volcanoes in the World which have an active and permanent lava lake. All three are found along the Great Rift Valley in Africa. When we arrived at the summit and took a little time out to rehydrate and rest we contemplated the fact that beneath our feet we had the materials that created our atmosphere and indeed life itself. This, together with the stars above, creates an impression and vista that stays with you for life. The crater lies within a crater and we had to climb down, by torchlight, to walk over old and very fragile fields of lava to reach the cauldron. The lava we walked over was crusty and ropey in nature and the Hawaiian islanders call it pahoehoe. When I reached the edge, even having done it before, I was mesmerized by the sight below. A black crust dissected by serrated fissures of molten red lava. The lava rises in small plumes and in microcosm mimics the great movements of the Earth’s crustal plates. It spreads where it rises and sinks where it cools and when there is a build up of heat and pressure it erupts and sprays lava skywards. It was much more active this time and the gases emitted were, in places and at times, overpowering. Some of the eruptions were really quite big and made us all retreat from the rim. What an experience, to see molten lava seething, breathing and erupting. This was humbling and at the same time exhilarating. Only being there and catching those moments can convey the insignificance you feel for yourself and power of the planet which has created us. I love taking photos and I took many but somehow it is never enough to feel the experience.
We slept in rough hewn stone shelters under the stars and rose early to see the sunrise over the lava lake. The glow still impresses but it is at night time that the pyrotechnics are at their best. It took us two hours to descend and as we did so the air became more oppressive and hotter. Feet were sore and we knew we had two long days of driving ahead to reach Addis. We stayed one night in a very basic hotel in Afdera, a centre for commercial salt mining. We were still in the Danakil. A simple shower, a cold beer and the beds pulled outside made the night more tolerable. It was hot, very hot. Our final night was spent in Awash national park where we went to the waterfall and the hot springs. The latter are beautiful and very hot. But they certainly helped to mitigate against the aching limbs created by the climb and to cleanse the pores which were filled with Danakil dust. The next day we finished the trip and went out to the Irish ball – good training for a night of revelry! I am not sure which was tougher!
Teddy Berhanu runs Acacia tours in Ethiopia. He is one of the most experienced tour operators I know and his service is exemplary. He has been to the Danakil many times and I would personally use no-one else. His equipment, intimate knowledge, car handling and the fact that he takes along a mechanic and cook make it all possible in terrain which is so challenging.
Theodros Berhanu (Teddy) Acacia Tours +251 911 201394

Trevor Cole